Glossary

B

Biometric measurements

Any physical measurements taken from participants in a wellness screening program (height and weight, percent body fat, and blood pressure).

C

Carrier neutral

Ability to transmit, communicate and support any insurance and health plans within an employer's population. Many employers have more than one insurance option for their employees.

Cholesterol

A fat-like substance that is made by the body and is found naturally in animal foods such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products. When cholesterol levels are too high, some of the cholesterol is deposited on the walls of the blood vessels. Over time, the deposits can build up, causing the blood vessels to narrow and blood flow to decrease.

Cohort data

A set of de-identified data from the same participants measured at multiple screenings over time, most often year-to-year. Cohort data enables the analysis of changes in a given population over a select timeframe. For example, although 30,000 people participate in biometric wellness screenings as Quest Diagnostics employees, only 25,000 will be a part of a cohort group analysis because those individuals participated last year as well.

Consumer-Driven Health Plan (CDHP)

A type of employer-sponsored health plan that has a high deductible and personal Health Savings Account (HSA) that is managed by the consumer. Any remaining money is carried over from year to year if not used. Coverage for preventive care is 100%. HSAs and Health Reimbursement Accounts (HRAs) are two types of CDHPs.

Coronary heart disease

A narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart.

D

Diabetes

A disease that affects the body's ability to produce or use insulin. If you have high glucose levels with a glucose panel, you may have diabetes. Diabetes is broken down into two types. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by inability to produce the hormone insulin. This is more commonly diagnosed in childhood. Type 2 diabetes is characterized in the body's inability to use insulin efficiently. Type 2 diabetes commonly develops in adulthood.

Diagnostic testing

Procedure which gives a rapid, convenient and/or inexpensive indication of whether a patient has a certain disease.

Disease (case) management

A system of coordinated health care interventions and communications for populations with conditions in which patient self-care efforts are significant; usually those with high (or the potential of high) medical claims. The case manager supports the physician or practitioner/patient relationship and plan of care; emphasizes prevention of exacerbations and complications utilizing evidence-based practice guidelines and patient empowerment strategies; and evaluates clinical, humanistic, and economic outcomes on an on-going basis with the goal of improving overall health.

E

Employee Assistance Program (EAP)

An organized mental health program or service offered by employers to employees and/or families. They are usually brief interventions facilitated by professional counselors, and can take place over the phone, via live chat, or face-to-face. EAPs typically provide support for personal problems like alcohol/drug abuse, divorce, work-related conflicts, financial difficulties, and parenting struggles.

Employee contribution

The cost for medical care that the employee pays themselves, like a co-payment, coinsurance, or deductible.

Employers’ subsidy

The cost the employer pays for healthcare for the employees.

H

Health benefits

The health care coverage one receives.

Health coaching

The evidence-based practice of providing employees with personalized, one-on-one support to help them permanently change risky behaviors. Coaches empower participants with a sense of personal responsibility and self-sufficiency; they help clients overcome obstacles and develop a personal wellness vision. When participants are given the opportunity to tap into their own resources, needs and goals, they create results that are important to them and more readily strive toward healthier behaviors. The end result is improved lifestyle for them and reduced healthcare costs for their employers. The confidential sessions are typically brief telephonic interactions over a prescribed period of time. Health coaches often have a background in a health/wellness-related field, but more importantly are trained in specific coaching skills designed to elicit best thinking from their clients.

Health fair

An open house designed to provide specific populations with health/wellness information and/or services. The main focus is usually to provide educational materials and/or deliver specific health screenings.

Health promotion

The science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward optimal health. Optimal health/wellness is holistic and defined as a balance of physical, emotional, social, spiritual, and intellectual health. Lifestyle change can be facilitated through a combination of efforts to enhance awareness, change behavior and create environments that support good health practices. Synonymous with "worksite wellness."

Health Questionnaire

A type of survey that assesses an individual's potential risk factors for disease, injury or death based on specific lifestyle behaviors and biometric factors (e.g., blood pressure, cholesterol, height and weight). They often provide a total health score, and an individual's chronological age compared with a current and achievable health age. The results are included in confidential reports for individuals, and group aggregate summaries or corporate reports for health promotion practitioners.

Health Quotient

The total health score of a participant in a wellness program based on mathematical calculations from the collected data. A participant answers Health Questionnaire questions and has additional data input from lab results and physical measurements. These values are run through an algorithm and an individual score is determined.

Health screenings

Tests or procedures designed to identify persons who would not otherwise be identified. They include many specific laboratory tests, body scans, or procedures that are usually priced to accommodate large volumes of people. Health screenings often identify individuals who may need more comprehensive diagnostic testing. Examples include blood tests for cholesterol and glucose, blood pressure checks, bone density scans, hearing tests, height and weight, etc.

High risk

A health status that occurs when an individual whose lifestyle habits and/or health risks exceed the average health risk of someone the same age and sex. The focus in health promotion is to identify high risk people before health conditions develop and help them avoid the probability of disease, injury or death. Examples of lifestyle habits that increase risk for health conditions include not exercising, poor diet, smoking, obesity, stress, or having lifestyle-related conditions like high blood pressure, high cholesterol or diabetes.

I

Incentive program

An anticipated positive reward designed to influence the behavior and/or performance of individuals or groups. Health promotion or worksite wellness incentives typically include cash or savings/ rewards imbedded within the insurance design. A well-designed incentive can increase program participation.

L

Laboratory testing

Tests conducted in the laboratory where the appropriate equipment, supplies, and certified expertise are available.

M

Managed care

Any system that manages healthcare delivery with the aim of controlling costs.

Medical claims data

A complete record of all medical claims within a certain population. This data can be stratified according to specific parameters, such as by disease-state, most costly, age, sex, etc.

Medical oversight

Physician-directed medical care including orders, advice and review.

Metabolic Syndrome

This syndrome is a group of metabolic risk factors that exist in one person. Some of the underlying causes of this syndrome that give rise to the metabolic risk factors include being overweight or obese, having insulin resistance, being physically inactive, and genetic factors. Metabolic Syndrome is a serious health condition. People with it have a higher risk of diseases related to fatty buildups in artery walls. Coronary heart disease, which can lead to heart attack, is an example. Stroke and peripheral vascular disease are other examples. People with the Metabolic Syndrome are also more likely to develop type 2 diabetes.

O

Obesity

An excess of body fat that frequently results in a significant impairment of health.

Occupational health

The science of designing, implementing and evaluating comprehensive health and safety programs that maintain and enhance employee health, improve safety and increase productivity in the workplace.

OurCompany Profile

An aggregate report that is provided to the employer. This does not contain identified or personal health information, but does contain information on the population as a whole.

P

Personal wellness report

A personalized wellness report delivered to participants in a wellness program, highlighting focus areas, areas of improvement, and test explanations and ranges.

R

Risk factor

Something that increases a person's chances of developing a disease.

Risk identification

The process of discovering risks based on screenings, health risk questionnaires, and lifestyle choices.

S

Sedentary life

Sedentary lifestyle refers to people who do not engage in moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 30 minutes on five or more days of the week.

Self-reported values

Data reported by the participant for various health-related questions.

W

Wellness

A health care process that fosters awareness and attitudes toward health lifestyles so that individuals can make informed choices to achieve optimal physical and mental health.

Wellness culture

A collection of healthy or wellness-related ideas, customs, beliefs, norms, values, peer support, or policies that guide thoughts and behaviors within a specific organization. A "wellness culture" is believed to be one of the keys to successful wellness programming.

Worksite wellness

An organized program intended to assist employees/retirees and families in making voluntary behavior changes that reduce health risks and enhance their individual well-being and productivity. Synonymous with "health promotion."

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